Album Review: Andrew Bird – Break It Yourself

Chicago native Andrew Bird’s latest offering “Break it Yourself” stays true to the clever wit and one-of-a-kind whimsy that fans have come to expect from his music.

As a master of blending virtuoso violin playing and a signature whistling style that’s seemless in its own right (among other delightful flourishes), Bird manages to always effortlessly maintain a pop sensibility that warrants repeat playing without becoming too dull. It’s no different this time around.

On “Desperation Breeds”, the album’s opener, Bird delicately ruminates on the world’s bee shortage before slowly breaking into a high pitched violin squeal that dips into a mad frenzy of his trademark fingering skills. It almost literally seems to channel the frustration and confusion of the bees themselves.

“Eyeoneye”, a track that manages to correlate heartbreak and the complications of a tumor called a teratoma is as catchy as anything he’s done in the past, if not more so. The driving force of the melody makes vulnerability seem like a fun experience that no one should miss out on. This is especially clear towards the end when he sings/chants “Go ahead and defibrillate yourself” before the pounding drums build to a crescendo… and then fizzle with, of course, a light whistle; as if we just ran a hardcore marathon like it was nothing. Exhaustion doesn’t exist here, but exultation.

The hearbreak theme continues in “Near Death Experience Experience”, where the happiness of surviving a plane crash is dancing “… like cancer survivors… grateful simply to be alive”. But don’t let the dark subject matter fool you. The carefree mood of the song is so happy it’s like skipping down a sidewalk under a row of apple trees. Only when the apples hit your head do you realize the power conveyed in the lyrics of triumph over pain.

Who knew the subject of conquering fear and doubt could be so purely gorgeous? Take “Fatal Shore”, where a mellow Mr. Bird meditates on the subject as quietly subdued as ever, but no less emotionally powerful as some of his best tracks. The drums gently tap along with the guitar and bass like a gentle stroke on an aching back as Bird and vocalist Nora O’Connor harmonize beautifully while repeating such lyrics as “You never know any doubt like we who breathe in and out”.

A welcome comeback since 2009’s “Noble Beast”, we get a record not quite as immediately accessible or endlessly playful, but one that still stands as strong as most of his best work does. The details become more apparent with each listen, and that’s when the realization sets in: “Break it Yourself” isn’t just an album about a break-up. It’s actually a complete, beating entity, not too unlike a heart with its own love to give.

I personally wouldn’t want to break this kind of heart by myself. That’s where you, the listener, comes in… to feel the joy of heartbreak. An oxymoron that only makes sense in Andrew Bird’s world.



Is It Better to Add or Subtract EQ When Mixing Music?

Many home studio producers and studio recording engineers who know how to mix music have learned to equalise their music over time, will know that EQ is a crucial tool for creating a balanced mix that represents the music best and is pleasing to the ear. And the listener will want to listen to time and again. So getting the balance right and knowing when to subtract or add equalization is vital. And EQ is often overused.

Equalization or EQ is basically the volume of frequency ranges within a piece of music. Starting with sub bass and bass as the low frequency ranges, lo-mid hi-mid and presence range are next up and then come the high frequencies, some of which we cannot hear. Human ears are particularly sensitive to the mid and hi-mid or presence range as this is where speech lies in the frequencies.

If music is harsh or tiring on the ears then this means the mid range has been accentuated too much.

Another common error is too much bass which leads to ‘woolly’ or muddy mixes. So it is a delicate balance to strike to get all the elements of a track, song or piece of music heard as you intend when you are mastering how to mix music.

A common strategy is to do additive equalization (EQ) to bring out come frequencies or sounds within an instrument or track. This effectively means you are turning up the volume of a part of the instruments sound or overall within the piece of music. You can see the effects of this on some stereo hi-fi systems with EQ settings or even in computer software such as Winamp and Windows Media Player. So if adding EQ in music is essentially increasing the volume of a frequency range, it is important to be aware that this will affect the balance of the harmonics or overtones of the sound. And apparently with many plug in software EQ devices, this can also result in distortion or phasing issues (where the frequencies can start to cancel each other out or negatively affect each other in other weird and wonderful ways).

And subtractive EQ in music – where you basically are taking out some frequencies or turning them down – can also cause phasing issues. But I tend to try to go for subtractive instead of additive where possible as I feel is less harsh or tiring for the ears and can leave room for other instruments or frequencies to breathe. For example, if a vocal track is not cutting through the guitar in a singer songwriter song, I will first try carving out some of the mid frequencies from the guitar rather than adding more mid range frequencies to the vocal track.

So, before you reach to turn up frequencies to get them to be more present in the mix or more prominent, perhaps try taking away some frequencies from the parts that are overshadowing or in conflict with those frequencies. Of course EQ can be used more creatively and obviously as an effect if you are making creative music. Dancefloor DJs often make use of EQ filters for effect. Just be aware you are affecting the whole mix and could be tiring your listeners’ ears by using unnecessary or drastic EQ in music, meaning they won’t be keen to listen to the music too much.



Discover How to Become Rich, Famous & Successful With a Modeling Career

The road to becoming rich, famous and successful in modeling is not for everyone though. In the old days you had to be extra extra skinny in order to become a rich and famous model. Today however there are far more modeling avenues that entice many looks and body types.

You may have looked at a fashion magazine and have a pretty good idea of what modeling is. To get a good look into the requirements of modeling you may want to catch an episode of Americas Next Top Model. Most of the models on the tv show are high fashion models, but you may be wanting to get into another type of modeling like plus size industry. Modeling is everywhere we go and look. Only you know what kind of model you could be but be truthful with you self.

Before you jump into pursuing a modeling career you need to make sure your are doing it for the right reasons. If not you will misguide yourself and will not make it to where you want. If you think modeling is a good way to jump start your singing or acting career you best think about it again. People with this attitude rarely make it very far in modeling. All the top modeling professionals frown upon people like this everyday. To become rich, famous and successful in a modeling career you will need to have dedication and passion.

If you are male you will need to step outside of your shell to succeed. You see more female models than you do male models. Do not let this get you down by thinking you have to display big muscles. Modeling has went through many changes since the early days. Over time new genres, styles and looks have been added with even more on the way. You just might have that new style consumers are trying to find. You just never know in our ever changing world.

To be successful in a career of modeling you will need a high level of self confidence and ambition. No matter if you are female, male or what your body type is. When you enter into modeling you will have to work extra hard to be be transformed into a popular well known face. Be careful not to get ties up with an agency that does not treat or handle their clients honestly and respectfully. Every good agency will not need you to give them money. They will earn money once you land your first modeling gig.

When you find open calls make sure you go and do not talk yourself into not going no matter what you are thinking. Just do it. You see an open call is just as good as open houses where interested models are invited to be interviewed. You need to dress in clothing that will exhibit your body type and features. You will also want to pick an outfit out that is fashionable. This is your chance to prove yourself to the representatives of the agency. You will not stand out to them if you just wear your normal everyday clothes. To become famous you have to act like your famous in order to become rich, famous and successful in modeling.



What is the Ultimate Lifestyle?

Since the mission of this newsletter is to help you define,

carve out, and live your own Ultimate Lifestyle, I figured I

should devote some space to laying a proper foundation for

doing that.

Before you can hit a target, you need to know where it is!

So, to begin, let’s answer the question:

What is The Ultimate Lifestyle?

First of all, it’s different for different people. There are

no rules or formulas. For some people, it means a lot of

money, lots of “stuff,” a fast-paced and “jet-set” sort of

lifestyle. For others, it means a very simple, slow-paced

life that focuses on service to others. And for others, it’s

every possible scenario in between these two “extremes.”

There’s no right or wrong lifestyle, or good or bad

lifestyle.

There’s just what works for you — and it will likely change

over time. I know it has for me.

No matter how you end up defining Ultimate Lifestyle for

yourself, now and in the future, there are 8 components that

must be considered:

1) Income Streams

To live your Ultimate Lifestyle, you must have income

streams flowing that allow you to pay your bills and finance

all the “extras” you prefer. To me, the ultimate target to

shoot for in this arena is to have income streams flowing

whether you “show up” for “work” or not, so you can choose

what you want to show up for (even if it continues to be

what you call “work” or a “job.”).

That’s what I’ve been able to achieve by applying my

Invisible Path/11th Element strategies combined with direct

marketing on and off the Internet.

Having income streams flowing whether you show up or now

seems like “pie in the sky” to many people, but it’s

actually very attainable in today’s world. You’ll learn more

about how to do it in future issues.

2) Emotions and Beliefs

Many people fail to create their Ultimate Lifestyle because

they have emotional blocks, issues, or beliefs (what I call

“p.s’s.” or “master biography files”) that hold them back.

Other people have produced extraordinary results and could

live their Ultimate Lifestyle, but their blocks, issues or

beliefs prevent them from doing it — or fully enjoying it.

Therefore, living The Ultimate Lifestyle must include having

access to resources and inner skills that allow you to

uncover and remove, heal, or release any blocks, issues or

beliefs that hold you back. You’ll learn more about how to

do that in future issues.

3) Fulfillment and Satisfaction

Whether you have a 9-5 job and career, you’re a full-time

mom, or whatever you do with your time, a big part of living

The Ultimate Lifestyle means getting as much fulfillment and

satisfaction from what you spend your time on as possible.

Many people don’t ask for this, don’t focus on this, and

therefore don’t get it. You must make it part of your

intention and focus!

4) Living Environment

How and where do you want to live? In the mountains? In the

big city? On the water? Multiple homes? Do you want to live

in a big home or a small home? Is privacy or seeing

beautiful scenery out your windows important to you? Do you

like modern furnishings, antiques, or an eclectic mix?

Living the Ultimate Lifestyle means asking these questions

and having a home base that nourishes you at a very deep

level. My family recently moved to Charlottesville, Virginia

in pursuit of the nourishing living environment we craved —

and we got it, even better than we expected!

5) Relationships

What good is having income streams, a healthy emotional

life, empowering belief systems, a great living environment,

and a sense of fulfillment and satisfaction from how you

spend you time if you’re alone (and don’t want to be) or

your relationships with significant others (parents,

siblings, kids, associates, etc.) are a mess? Believe me, I

know about this one from long personal experience (before

meeting my wife, Cecily).

Therefore, living The Ultimate Lifestyle must include having

access to resources and inner skills that allow you to

attract, build, and maintain healthy relationships.

6) Health

Again, what good is having income streams, a healthy

emotional life, empowering belief systems, a great living

environment, fulfillment and satisfaction, and great

relationships if you have health problems that drag your

quality of life into the gutter?

Dr. Robert Lindberg says, “We spend most of our life gaining

wealth and we then spend most of our wealth on gaining back

our health.”

Living The Ultimate Lifestyle means having access to

knowledge, resources, and skills that allow you to get

healthy, stay healthy, and quickly resolve difficulties if

and when they arise. I discussed some of the resources I use

for this in previous issues, and will continue to share them

in future issues,

7) Time

You can have income streams, a healthy emotional life,

empowering belief systems, a great living environment,

fulfillment and satisfaction, great relationships and health

and if you don’t have any time to do what you love, to

follow your non-work passions, or to truly enjoy anything,

what’s the point? I know many people who could absolutely be

living their Ultimate Lifestyle, but they choose to work too

much, to the detriment of their quality of life. That’s too

bad — to have the choice and ability and not do it.

8) Wealth Building, Management, and Responsibility

The final component to living The Ultimate Lifestyle is

having systems in place that allow you to use your income

streams to create wealth (as you define it), manage it, grow

it, protect it, structure your financial and business

affairs for maximum efficiency and personal benefit, and

find ways of contributing and giving back (if that’s

important to you, which it is to me and my wife).

I’ll be writing a follow up article, called “The fuel that drives the Ultimate Lifestyle” shortly.



Awareness Check Point – Where Do You Live?

Envision this: Peace, wellness, freedom, trust, receptivity, gratitude, abundance, joy, blessings, energy, confidence, authenticity, giving, allowing, connection, passion, openness, creativity, bliss, love, courage, prosperity, self acceptance.

(Feels pretty good, yes?)

Now go here: (but not for long) Worry, doubt, fear, angst, hopelessness, blame, scarcity, grasping, anxiety, ego, sickness, victim hood, addiction, obsession, panic, resentment, grief, revenge, depression, lack, shame, suffering, despair.

(A definite case of the icky icks and you now need a shower.)

Did you feel the vast contrast of both of those places? All right, so now it’s truth time. Which of these places do you hang out in the most? If you don’t live in the best feeling places often, then why not? What’s stopping you from doing so? If you’re interested in reconnecting to the abundant wellspring of power that lies within, then this is your divine appointment to get started. The life you’ve been craving is patiently waiting for you to say yes to this quest, so let’s venture on towards the light already!

Take a minute and ask yourself if you think it’s truly possible to take up a permanent…or at least a consistent… residence at this Divine Address of feeling good. Underneath all of the repetitive ego banter, does your heart KNOW that you deserve to feel good, and often, at that? A simple request…be gentle with yourself and your findings and know that you are expanding your consciousness in this very moment. Know that your answers are solely INFORMATION. All of this inquiry is part of your shift that’s happening right now.

Feeling good IS your natural state and your glorious birthright! Notice if the thought of that TRUTH scares you or excites you. You are safe to delve deep here. In fact, you are encouraged to eavesdrop into your very soul and notice your internal conversations. For only you know the answers and they are to be blessed, for they are leading you to your expansion right now.

The objective here is to determine what areas you take up residence in the most, so you can now declare where you’d like to end up. You have to know where you are before you map out the journey towards your final destination, don’t you? Just ask any GPS. The good news is that you have been directed to this point, and you can breathe easy now and know you are well on your vibrant way.

If you are suspecting or even knowing that your daily pattern is to act from the not so positive emotions, relax. This is not a time for beating yourself up. Resist going there and feeding that pattern. If you do vibrate in these darker places often, it’s probably safe to say that you are most likely curious about how to live in the better feeling places.

Do you already live your life from the higher spectrum of emotions? If so, you are our inspiration and our role models and we need you. We bless you, revere you and desire to learn from your being! Thank you for teaching us by example that this ever-present good feeling reality is possible. You are lighting the way for us all.

The bottom line is this: You have CHOICE.

To accept your invitation to your new reality:

1. Become aware of where you are.

2. Check in to see if this is where you want to be.

3. If you yearn to shift to a different place, then CHOOSE it.

THE POINT OF POWER IS IN THE PRESENT MOMENT.

Just reach for a thought that feels a little bit better, and your life will change. A little bit better…a little bit better…a little bit better…and before you know it, you have reached your own personal state of feeling good.

And THAT is a very savory moment.

And now you have officially entered – Heaven on earth.

Welcome home…



How To Sell Guitars – Make Money Selling Guitars and Musical Equipment

Are you looking to become a guitar reseller or open a guitar store?

I can tell you from experience that selling guitars is a fun and rewarding business to pursue. I love meeting musicians, helping to spread the music, and frankly, I just love being around guitars. Here are a few things to keep in mind if you’re learning how to sell guitars:

Business Licensing/Taxes

The first thing to keep in mind when selling anything in large quantities is business licensing and taxes. First, make sure you keep a record of everything you’ve sold. When it comes time to pay taxes, you’ll need to know the exact nature of the business you’ve done. One of the biggest worries with a start-up reselling business is getting audited by the IRS. In the event of an audit, the more information you can provide the better. As you begin to make a modest profit from reselling, make sure to set money aside for taxes. In many states, the buyer is required to pay sales tax for each transaction, and it’s the seller’s responsibility to set this money aside at the time of the transaction.

You will also need to obtain a business license. These are easy to acquire in most states for a small fee. In many states, a reseller business license will come with a Reseller Permit, with which one is able to purchase in bulk without having to pay a state sales tax. If you start selling a lot of guitars, such as more than 5 per month, then you should seriously consider obtaining a business license. Along with helping your business to be more accountable, it often earns you special rights and tax breaks that will help your business grow.

Finding Your Niche

There are many ways to sell guitars. Websites like Craigslist and eBay are great places to sell guitars, but they often have plenty of competition. Depending on where you’re located, Craigslist might be a great way to spread the word locally. There are many people who are good at repairing, modifying, or parting out guitars (taking them apart and selling the parts separately). Your “niche” will depend partially on your location, but mainly it will depend on your passion. If you love talking to people in a private setting, Craigslist might be your best bet. If you love tinkering with and parting out guitars, you could consider selling parts on eBay, or to a local music shop. If you love the idea of opening up a storefront, or augmenting one you may already own with some quality guitars, maybe you’re meant to be a guitar salesman. If you don’t know which method will work best for you, it can never hurt to try things out. You’ll never know if you don’t try!

Opening a Guitar Store

Opening a guitar store can be a huge challenge, but it can also be very rewarding. With the recent interest in the internet and online retail, many guitar shops are going out of business. Guitar Center and Musician’s Friend, two of the top guitar stores in the country, have grown so large that it’s often nearly impossible to compete with them directly. That doesn’t mean that it’s not possible. When opening a guitar store, make sure you’re offering a completely unique service. Whether your store has the perfect location, selection, staff, or pricing, it’s imperative that your store has the perfect something. We are living in troubling economic times, but that doesn’t mean that stores are closing for no reason. It simply means that, as the times change and technology evolves, so does the public demand for services. One must look at their business and be able to clearly see the areas in which they excel. Find out what makes (or could make) your guitar store great, and keep it up. Publicize your specialty, let everyone know what it is you do and why you’re the best for them.

Be Creative

As I said before, there are many ways to sell guitars. One of the best things you can do when creating your guitar business is to think outside the box and be creative. With enough creativity, you can create a whole new way to do business and thus create a whole new market. Regardless of the state of the economy, consumers will always pay for something great, something they believe in. Your customers are people, and they get excited about new things. People love having fun, and they love watching things improve and being a part of the future. It’s important to realize that your ideal guitar business model might be something that’s never been done before, but also something that there’s a huge demand for. Write a list of all the ways that you could sell guitars, then keep going, keep writing. No idea is too crazy. Creative businesses are the way of the future, and there’s nothing stopping you from creating the top guitar business in the world.

Shop for Discount/Wholesale Guitars in Bulk

You may have a pretty good idea of what your guitar business will look like and how you will start it up. Now you need the product, and you need it at the right price. How do the big guitar companies do it? Sometimes they have invested millions of dollars in their relationships with major manufacturers, ensuring that they get the best exclusive deal on all the goods. Most of the time, they just have a smart business model. It’s easy to get tons of musical equipment to sell, you just have to follow some strict rules, and pay top dollar. Many stores sell new, name brand equipment, and make 0% profit. The new equipment is just a way to get people in the door, and all of the profit is made from selling used equipment. This is just an example, but you should keep in mind that some products are made to attract customers, while others are made to give you the profits you’re looking for.

Working With Manufacturers

If you plan on selling refurbished guitars, sometimes it’s a great idea to supplement your inventory with new guitars directly from the manufacturers. Sometimes these guitars can be very difficult to acquire, and even more difficult to make a profit from, but they can definitely help get you some foot traffic (or internet traffic). Most manufacturers are more than willing to let you sell their products, assuming you follow their strict guidelines. For example, most will require you to have a storefront (which can’t be too close to another authorized dealer), sell a certain amount of guitars per month, purchase a large amount of their products up front (often you will not be able to choose which guitars to purchase), and charge no less than the price they determine. For a small business, it can be rough. But if you know what you’re getting into, working with manufacturers can be a great way to increase your business. If someone buys a new guitar from you, they’re more likely to come back for another. If someone walks in your door to buy a new guitar, they might be open to getting a refurbished one instead. The more business the better, as long as you can meet all the requirements.



Guide To Choosing A Great Appliance Repair Company

Appliances make people’s lifestyle easy. However, they need repair when they break down. It is important to hire an experienced and reliable appliance repair firm to make sure that the professionals fix your home appliance properly. Home owners often find it difficult to choose a good firm. There are many firms out there that offer repair services, but most of them do not have skilled professionals. Many of them overcharge, taking advantage of the home owner’s helpless situation. With some valuable advice, people can find the right appliance repair company.

Here are some tips to help you hire the right company to repair your home appliances:

Get referrals

An effective way to find a repair company is to get referrals from friends and acquaintances. When someone you are familiar with, recommends a firm from which he received satisfactory services in terms of professionalism, price and repair services, you know that it is a good company to work for you. If your oven has a problem, ask for more and more referrals of oven repairs companies from your close ones and contact the companies.

Consider insurance and license

You will come across many advertisements of repair firms. Look for the ones that say “Licensed and Insured”. Do not go for firms without insurance and license. Make sure that the firm’s insurance is current and it has a valid license number.

Check out the time for which the company is working

Before hiring a company, find out the time for which it is operating in its place with the same name. Prefer a company more that has a long history in its locality, than a startup that has no history in that region.

Check out internet directors

Check out the prominent business directories in the internet and see whether the firm’s name is present in them or not. Check directories like yahoo local, Google maps, superpages.com and yellowpages.com. For example, if your washing machine has some problem, choose a washing machine repairs firm whose name is present in the directories.

Consider the firm’s advertising

Check out if the company conducts large-scale advertising. If yes, it is likely to spend a huge amount of money in advertising. Such companies need to get this money from somewhere, and most of them get it from the customers by charging a higher fee. Avoid such firms.

Compare a technician from a small family owned business with that of a large company

A local business wants to keep up his reputation in its locality. A technician from such a firm is likely you offer you quality services. On the other hand, a technician from a big national chain may not offer you satisfactory services.

Talk to the technician

If you are considering a firm, enquire about the technician it is sending you. Talk to the technician about the issues in your appliance. If your dishwasher has some problem, ask the technician about his experience in dishwasher repairs service. Explain the problems in the dishwasher and see if the technician is able to tell you about the repair it needs.

With these tips, you can find a good home appliance repair company. A good firm will not only repair the problems in your appliances, but will also offer a great customer service.



Steam Boilers’ Thirteen Essential Fittings in a Nutshell

Steam boiler is dangerous machinery, and for that reason, law is required to control every aspect of the boiler. Factories & Machinery (Steam Boilers and Unfired Pressure Vessel) Regulations, 1970, provided stringent requirement on safety aspects and controls on boilers. This Code stipulates that any boiler should consolidate thirteen essential fittings so that boilers can be operated safely.

The thirteen essential fittings can be grouped into three categories. The first category is safety fitting. Safety fittings include safety valves, gauge glasses, pressure gauge, low water alarm, low-water fuel cutout, and fusible plug. The second category is control fittings, which incorporate blowdown valves, main stop valve, feed check valve, and feed pumps. The final category is legal fitting, which incorporate inspector’s test attachment, registration plate, and manufacturer’s name plate. In this article, I would discuss some safety fittings.

Safety valve is the most important safety fitting on a boiler. It is fitted to prevent excessive pressure buildup in the boiler which could lead to boiler explosion. FMA Regulations 1970 stipulates that every boiler having a heating surface surpassing 100 sq.ft must be equipped with two safety valves, one of which must be direct spring-loaded type, mounted vertically as close as practical to the steam boiler shell without shut valve placed in between. The relieving capacity of safety valves is determined by the capacity of the boiler at peak load. The safety valves must be able to effectively discharge all steam with a rise of pressure of not greater than ten percent of the authorized safe working pressure (ASWP). The safety valves must be set to blow at different pressures. The first valve should open when the pressure exceeds three percent above the boiler working pressure while the other valve should open at a pressure slightly higher but must not be higher than the ASWP. The working pressure of a boiler is usually set at seven percent below ASWP. The spindles, disk, and other moving parts must not be made of materials that corrode easily.

Pressure gauge is the fitting that measures steam pressure inside the steam boiler. The Bourdon tube is the most common pressure gauge used on a boiler. The Code specifies that a pressure gauge should be installed on the steam space and provided with a shutoff cock and a siphon which develops and maintains a water seal, protecting direct contact of live steam with the Bourdon tube. A pressure gauge is usually mounted in front of the boiler in such a position that the boilermen can conveniently read it from the firing floor. FMA (Steam Boilers and Unfired Pressure Vessels) Regulations, 1970 stipulates that the diameter of the dial must not be less than 6 inches and must show pressure within a tolerance of two percent the authorized safe working pressure. The scale on the dial of a code pressure gauge must be graduated to not less than one and one-third and not more than twice ASWP.

A fusible plug is used in addition to other forms of low water protection. This device is not required by ASME code but is still included in FMA Regulations 1970. The fusible plug in watertube boiler is placed 3 inches below lowest water level while in firetube boiler, fusible plug is placed 3 inches above top tubes. In the event of low water, fusible plug will melt, the pressure inside the boiler is released, and the sound of escaping steam will produce high whistling sound, alerting the boilermen. However, the capability of fusible plug to quench the fire in the furnace is debatable because the steam rushed out is too small to have quenching impact. The hole of fusible plug is only 1/2″. Fusible plug is made of brass or bronze and contains a tapered hole. The hole is filled with tin which has a melting point of 230 deg.C. According to code, the fusible alloy should melt at a temperature of not more than 70 deg.C higher than the saturated steam temperature corresponding to the ASWP. For example, for a steam boiler of 10 bar, the saturated steam temperature is 180 deg.C; therefore the fusible alloy should melt at 250 deg.C. The use of fusible plug is limited to solid fuel and steam boiler having a pressure of 17 bar, which corresponds to tin’s melting temperature. Higher pressure would require low water alarm. That is why in a modern boiler, fusible plug sometimes cannot be found as it is replaced with low water alarm which serves exactly the same function.



The Ultimate Guide To Writing Great Sales Letter Headlines

If you want to write great sales letter headlines that stop your ideal prospects dead in their tracks, so they read the rest of your copy and ultimately buy from you, then this post will be one of the most important things you ever read.

Right, what’s the most important part of any sales letter?

The bullets?

Testimonials?

Close?

No, no and no again. Instead, it’s your sales letter headline.

Now, I know what you’re thinking…

How can something as small as your headline be the single most important thing in your entire copy?

Well, look at it like this:

It doesn’t matter how good your offer is, how enticing a story you write, how powerful your testimonials are, if no one reads your copy.

So the first “win” you have to get when writing copy, is getting your prospects to actually read it.

You do that through your headline.

With me so far?

Good. Moving on.

Now then, how do you write a great sales letter headline?

Well, here’s what most people do:

They build a swipe file of all the greatest headlines throughout history.

Good so far.

Thing is, instead of using these headlines as inspiration for writing their own headline, they literally swipe them word-for-word.

They just add and subtract a couple of words here and there, so it applies to their own product or market. And that’s that.

On the face of it, you might think it’s clever.

If it’s worked once, it’s gonna work again, right?

Well, not so fast.

You see, there’s a reason those headlines worked so well. And it comes down to this:

The copywriters who wrote them knew their markets inside-out.

Specifically, they knew two things:

1) How much the market knew of their product.

(This included what the product did, the mechanisms involved, and how well it satisfied a problem or desire they had.)

2) How AWARE their market was of any problem or desire they might have been experiencing at that time.

In his book “Breakthrough Advertising”, one of the great copywriters of all time, Eugene Schwartz, called this the market’s “state of awareness”.

And he said you have to write your headline with your market’s CURRENT state of awareness in mind.

If you don’t, then your sales letter headline won’t hit home with your prospects…

It will flop…

And the people who otherwise would’ve bought from you, won’t even read the rest of your copy.

Which would be a royal pain in the backside, right?

Anyway, there are 5 different states of awareness you have to be aware of. (Get it?)

These are:

Stage 1: Your prospect knows of your product and wants it, but just hasn’t got around to buying it yet.

Stage 2: Your prospect knows of your product but does NOT want to buy it yet.

Stage 3: Your prospect is NOT aware of your product, but IS aware of a desire he has which your product would fulfill.

Stage 4: Your prospect is not aware of your product, though he has a NEED which has to be fulfilled.

Stage 5: Your prospect is not aware of your product AND he is not aware of any need or desire he has relating to what your product does.

Look:

You MUST know which stage of awareness your prospects are in, in that moment of time.

Why?

Because you have to use a different headline “formula” for each stage.

What are these formulas? Let me tell you…

Stage 1: Your prospect knows of your product and wants it, but just hasn’t got around to buying yet.

This one’s easy.

All you really need to do in your headline is state the name of your product and a bargain price.

People in this stage of awareness will then buy.

For example, everyone knows what an iPhone is. And there are millions of people who want one, but haven’t got round to buying yet.

If iPhone wrote a headline which said something as simple as:

“iPhone (whatever the latest model is): Now Available At Half Price,” people would flock to it.

Thing is, most products don’t fall in this category. And if they don’t, then this type of headline would stink worse than my balls after ten sets of squats.

On that nice thought, let’s move on…

Stage 2: Your prospect knows of your product but doesn’t want to buy it yet.

Things are now slightly more complicated…

But not much more.

Here, you just need to strengthen your headline in one of the 7 following ways:

1) Reinforce your prospect’s desire for the outcome your product can help him achieve.

2) Sharpen the image of your product in action, in the mind of your prospect.

David Ogilvy’s famous ‘Rolls-Royce’ ad headline is a great example of this:

“At 60mph the loudest sound in this new Rolls-Royce comes from the electric clock.”

You can now imagine driving a smooth-as-fuck Rolls-Royce, right?

Amazing imagery.

3) Emphasise WHEN and WHERE your prospect can make use of and benefit from your product.

For example, I never bothered with Netflix.

Until, that is, when I went travelling around Thailand and wanted to watch some movies in my downtime.

I didn’t think I’d be able to get Netflix on my phone.

But guess what? I saw a headline saying there was a Netflix mobile app, and I could stream movies from anywhere in the world.

Of course I then signed up, because I was no longer limited to watching movies in my bedroom back in England – I was able to watch them anywhere in the world, at any time I wanted.

4) Emphasise new documentation or proof that backs up the quality/effectiveness of your product.

5) Mention a new mechanism in your product that makes it “perform” better than before.

6) Mention a new mechanism in your product that overcomes a previous limitation it had.

E.g. If there was a brand-new ingredient in a beer that prevented hangovers,that company would be stupid not to mention it in their headline!

7) Finally, you might want to change your prospect’s image of your product altogether, to remove it from competition and/or to enter a new market.

Lucozade did this.

It used to be a drink people had when they were ill. Then they re-positioned it as an energy drink you can have daily.

Genius.

Right, that’s “Stage 2” on the Scale of Awareness done.

Let’s move onto stage 3…

Stage 3: Your prospect is NOT aware of your product, but IS aware of a desire he has which your product would fulfill.

Remember this:

If your prospect doesn’t know of your product yet, and doesn’t know what it can do for him, do not mention it in your headline.

Got it?

Good.

Instead, you should start with the DESIRE your prospect has.

Your body copy must then prove that desire can be accomplished.

And finally, you need to show them that your product is the best/only way they can fulfil that desire.

Next.

Stage 4: Your prospect is not aware of your product, though he has a NEED which has to be fulfilled.

This is similar to “stage 3”, so we’re not gonna spend too much time on this.

Here, you want to name the need and/or its solution in your headline.

Then, you want to really rub salt into the wound so to speak, by making your prospect realise how badly he needs a solution to his need.

And as before, you then present your product as the solution.

Stage 5: Your prospect is not aware of your product AND he is not aware of any need or desire he has relating to what your product does.

Right, this is where a top copywriter earns his money.

If your sales letter headline can appeal to people in this category, you should get a ton more sales, and more money in your bank.

Thing is, how do you do it?

Well, as you might’ve guessed, you can’t mention your product.

Nor can you mention a desire – they’re not aware of it yet.

Price? Definitely not. At this stage, price is irrelevant too.

So what do you do?

You start with (drumroll please)…

YOUR MARKET!

Yep, when addressing a market in this fifth stage of awareness, you need to “call out” your market first, so they can identify with your ad.

If they don’t even identify with it, then they won’t read on. Fact.

Then, only after they’ve identified with your ad through your headline, you do the following in your main body copy:

First, you need to make them aware of the problem or desire.

Then, make them realise there’s a solution.

And finally, same as before, make sure they see YOUR product as the obvious solution.

Anyway, all this might overwhelm you at first. It sure did me.

It’s a lot to take in.

But if you can master this one aspect of copywriting alone, your copy’s gonna convert better than 90% of your competitors.

Meaning more money for you.